Iran , also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran,is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan, to the southeast by Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Iran covers an area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the fifth-largest country entirely in Asia and second-largest in the Middle East (after Saudi Arabia). Its population is 85 million, the 17th most populous in the world.The capital and largest city is Tehran.
Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations,beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC.
After two centuries of Arab rule, semi-independent and independent Iranian kingdoms—including the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids, and Buyids—began to appear on the fringes of the declining Abbasid Caliphate.
Tomb of Hafez, the medieval Persian poet whose works are regarded as a pinnacle in Persian literature and have left a considerable mark on later Western writers, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Emerson.
The blossoming literature, philosophy, mathematics, medicine, astronomy and art of Iran became major elements in the formation of a new age for the Iranian civilization, during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age. The Islamic Golden Age reached its peak by the 10th and 11th centuries, during which Iran was the main theater of scientific activities.
Culture and customs of the Iranian people
The culture and customs of a nation can be seen in the social, family and status situations of that country. (Complimenting) is considered one of the most important social habits of the Iranian people, which is observed in many situations. Shaking hands and rubbing hands is another habit.
Respect for elders in family gatherings and among the family is a long-standing culture that has retained its value. The position of father and grandfather as the head of the family is still preserved.
How many provinces does Iran have?
The divisions of Iran have undergone significant changes in recent decades. In 1316, Iran had only ten provinces, but in 1383 their number increased to three provinces.
This year, different parts of the country were divided into 362 cities, 918 districts, 2430 villages, 1060 cities with the center in Tehran, until in 2010, Alborz province was added to the provinces of Iran and their number increased to thirty-one. .
The provinces of Iran are in alphabetical order:
East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Isfahan, Alborz, Ilam, Bushehr, Tehran, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, South Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, Khuzestan, Zanjan, Semnan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Fars, Qazvin, Qom, Kurdistan, Kerman , Kermanshah, Kohkilouyeh and Boyerahmad, Golestan, Gilan, Lorestan, Mazandaran, Markazi, Hormozgan, Hamedan, Yazd.